In the end, all parties recognized the need to „prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,“ but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient. concerned that aggregate greenhouse gas emission estimates for 2025 and 2030, resulting from projected national contributions, are not covered by the most cost-effective scenarios at 2oC, but result in a forecast level of 55 gigatonnes. In 2030, and acknowledging „that much greater efforts will be needed to reduce emissions in order to keep the increase in the average global temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.“  [Clarification needed] Adaptation issues have been at the forefront of the paris agreement`s organization. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.
 Reports on national communications are often several hundred pages long and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its vulnerabilities and effects of climate change.  National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. The fate of U.S. participation in the Paris Agreement now depends on the outcome of the presidential elections. Implementation of the agreement by all Member States will be evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.  The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. The Historic Achievement Many columnists regard the Paris Agreement as a historic achievement of paramount importance; some even herald it as the beginning of a new era in the fight against climate change. Finally, the previous Kyoto Protocol only called on developed countries to commit to it and it became clear that we would see an increase in carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries.