In 2005, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement resolved part of the armed conflict in Sudan, including the 2011 referendum on South Sudan`s independence and the secession of South Sudan. The Abuja and Doha peace accords in Darfur in 2011 aimed to resolve the conflict in Darfur. The draft constitutional declaration of August 2019, signed by military and civilian representatives during the 2018/2019 Sudanese revolution, requires that a peace agreement be reached for a democratic civilian government within the first six months of the 39-month transition period. [2] [3] This article focuses on the component of the peace process that began in 2019. A peace agreement was signed between the SRF, SPLM-N under the leadership of Malik Agar and the MLS under Minni Minnawi and the Sudanese government,[38] missing both al Nur and al-Hilu. [39] However, the agreement contained conditions for the rebels to integrate into the security forces and to grant them political representation, economic and land rights, in addition to a 10-year plan to invest $750 million in the development of the southern and western regions and to ensure the return of displaced persons. [40] Four representatives from Darfur and Khabbashi signed a framework agreement on the Darfur line on 28 December covering issues such as power-sharing, wealth sharing, transitional justice and the Darfur-Darfur dialogue. [13] On 31 December, the SRF suspended talks on the Darfur road as part of the fighting that left 708 people dead and injured in el-Geneina. [29] A FFC delegation visiting the region attributed the conflict to the „deep state“ and the victims attributed it to „janjaweed“ and „militant shepherds in Rapid Support Forces vehicles“. [30] The draft constitutional declaration of 4 August states that „achieving a just and comprehensive peace and ending the war by expanding to the roots of the Sudanese problem“ as Article 7 (1), the first post mentioned in its „transitional mandate,“ and contains details in Chapter 15, Articles 67 and 58 of the document. [2] [3] Article 67.b) states that a peace agreement should be concluded within six months of the signing of the draft constitutional declaration.

Article 67.c) requires women to participate at all levels of the peace process and implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325, and Article 67 provides for the legal definition of women`s rights. (d) Other mechanisms for implementing the comprehensive peace process are listed in Articles 67. (e) (cessation of hostilities, opening of humanitarian aid corridors, release of prisoners and exchanges), 67. (f) (Amnesty for political leaders and members of the armed opposition) and 67 g (Transitional Justice and Responsibility for Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes, and Trials in National and International Courts). [2] Article 68 lists 13 „essential issues for peace negotiations.“ [3] JUBA, SOUTH SUDAN/KHARTOUM, SOUDAN – Saturday`s peace agreement between the Sudanese government and various rebel groups attracts both praise and protests from those most directly affected by the agreement. The transitional government and various rebel groups are in Juba one year after the start of peace talks, but two key groups are not present. Several Sudanese who attended a signing ceremony in Juba said the agreement was a new beginning for marginalized people in the states of South Kordofan, Darfur and Blue Nile. On 27 September 2020 in Addis Ababa, an agreement was reached between the transitional government and the SPLM-North al-Hilu rebel group to separate religion from the state and not discriminate against anyone in order to ensure equal treatment for all Sudanese citizens. According to the Statement of Principles, „Sudan is a multiracial, multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural society.

The full recognition and accommodation of this diversity must be confirmed.